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other STUDIES AND STATISTICS

This page lists recent studies and relevant statistical data on pension coverage and related issues that have been published by other organizations. Please click the title to read each study. You may need to download Adobe Acrobat Reader to view these studies.

If there are other studies or data which you would like to see added to this page, please send us an email containing the relevant link or study.

Pension Coverage Statistics
General Pension Statistics
General Wealth and Savings Statistics
Comparisons of Defined Benefit and Defined Contribution Plans
Analysis of Defined Benefit Plans
Trends in Defined Benefit Plans
Analysis of Defined Contribution Plans


PENSION COVERAGE STATISTICS

Retirement Savings: How Much Will Workers Have When They Retire? by Patrick Purcell, Congressional Research Service, January 2007
This report presents the results of an analysis of the amount of retirement savings that households might be able to accumulate by age 65 under a number of different scenarios.  The analysis shows how varying the age at which households begin to save for retirement, the percentage of their earnings that they save, and the rate of return on investment can affect the amount of retirement savings the household will accumulate.

Pension Sponsorship and Participation: Summary of Recent Trends by Patrick Purcell, Congressional Research Service, August 2006.
This study incorporates data from the Census Bureau's March 2006 Current Population Survey and found that the percentage of workers whose employer sponsored a retirement plan fell from 61.8% in 2004 to 59.7% in 2005. This study also contains a wealth of statistics on rates of retirement plan participation among employees from various sectors.

Estimating Pension Coverage Using Different Data Sets by Geoffrey Sanzenbacher, Boston College Center for Retirement Research, August 2006.
This study examined pension coverage among several groups of people and found that only about half of the private sector workforce has pension coverage. The study also found that while the type of coverage has shifted rapidly in recent decades from defined benefit plans to 401(k) plans, overall coverage has remained flat.

Access to Defined Contribution Retirement Plans among Workers in Private Industry, 2005 by Elizabeth Dietz, Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2006.
This study finds that 53 percent of all workers in private industry have access to at least one employer-provided defined contribution retirement plan.

Individual Account Retirement Plans: An Analysis of the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances by Craig Copeland, Employee Benefits Research Institute, May 2006.
This EBRI Issue Brief examines the incidence of individual account plans among families, as well as the average amount of assets accumulated in these accounts, using the most recent data from the Federal Reserve’s Survey of Consumer Finances.

Topics in Aging:  Income of Americans Age 65 and Older, 1969-2004 by Patrick Purcell and Debra Whitman, Congressional Research Service, March 2006.
This CRS report presents data collected by the Census Bureau from 1969 through 2005 that describe how the demographic traits, employment patterns, and the sources and amounts of income of people 65 and older have changed over a period of nearly 40 years.

Pension Coverage: A Missing Step in the Wealth-Building Ladder for Latinos by Eric Rodriguez and Deirdre Martinez, National Council of La Raza, March 2004.
This study examines pension coverage rates for Latinos and provides insight into methods of improving pension access and participation among Latino workers.

Retirement Security for Latinos: Bolstering Coverage, Savings and Adequacy by Peter Orzag and Eric Rodriguez, The Retirement Security Project and National Council of La Raza, July 2005.
This study examines issues pertaining to retirement savings and adequacy in retirement for Latinos.

Private Pension Coverage: Benefits and Trends by Alicia H. Munnell and Annika Sundén with the assistance of Elisabeth Lidstone. Center for Retirement Research, Boston College. Prepared for the Conversation on Coverage, July 2001.
This study includes data from the Current Population Survey collected by the Bureau of the Census, the Employee Benefits Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Survey of Consumer Finances conducted by the Federal Reserve Board in cooperation with the Treasury Department's Statistics of Income Division, the Health and Retirement Study, and IRS Form 5500s published by the Department of Labor's Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration.

Pension Plans: Characteristics of Persons in the Labor Force Without Pension Coverage. General Accounting Office, August 2000.
This study includes data from the March 1999 Current Population Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census.

Pension and IRA Coverage Among Boomer, Pre-Boomer, and Older Workers by Jules Lichtenstein, AARP, February 2000.
This study includes data from the Employee Benefits Supplement to the April 1993 Current Population Survey.

The Gender Gap in Pension Coverage: Women Working Full-Time are Catching Up, but Part-Time Workers Have Been Left Behind by Catherine Hill, Institute for Women Policy Studies, April 2001.
This study includes data from the 1993 Survey of Income and Program Participation. Report submitted to the Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration, U.S. Department of Labor.

The Impact of Labor Market Trends on Health and Pension Benefit Coverage and Inequality by James L. Medoff, Center for National Policy and Michael Calabrese, New America Foundation, February 2001.
This study includes data from Current Population Surveys between 1979 and 1999. Report submitted to the Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration, U.S. Department of Labor.

Coverage Status of Workers Under Employer Provided Pension Plans: Findings from the Contingent Work Supplement to the February, 1999 Current Population Survey.
This study includes data from Employee Benefits Supplements to the Current Population Survey published by the Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration, U.S. Department of Labor.

Issues of Coverage and Increasing Contribution Limits for Defined Contribution Plans, General Accounting Office, September 2001.

Private Pension Plan Bulletin, Abstract of 1997 Form 5500 Annual Reports, U.S. Department of Labor, Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration, Number 10, Winter 2001, Final 1997.

Pension and Health Benefits of American Workers: New Findings from the April 1993 Current Population Survey, U.S. Department of Labor Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration, May 1994.


General Pension Statistics

Retirement Savings and Household Wealth: Trends from 2001 to 2004 by Patrick Purcell, Congressional Research Service, May 2006.
This study analyzes trends in retirement savings, retirement plan design and plan participation.

Private Pension Plan Bulletin: Abstract of 2001 Form 5500 Annual Reports, Employee Benefits Security Administration, February 2006.
This report, published annually, provides basic statistical data on the types of retirement plans offered, how many people participated in each type of plan, and the amount of assets in each type.

National Compensation Survey: Employee Benefits in Private Industry in the United States, Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 2005.
This study includes statistical data on the percentage of workers that are covered by employer-provided retirement plans, health insurance, life insurance, disability, paid vacation, and other benefits.

The State of Private Pensions: Current 5500 Data, Boston College Center for Retirement Research, February 2006.
This study provides statistical data on retirement plans and participation for the year 2003.


Trends in Defined Benefit Plans

Milliman 2006 Pension Study, Milliman, April 2006. 
This study provides statistics from 100 large U.S. corporations that sponsor defined benefit pension plans.

Defined Benefit Plan Freezes: Who's Affected, How Much, and Replacing Lost Accruals by Jack VanDerhei, Employee Benefits Research Institute, March 2006.
This EBRI Issue Brief provides a detailed analysis of how defined benefit plan freezes are likely to impact existing employees as a function of plan type and employee demographics. This analysis also provides a construct for employers to estimate the relative impact of certain demographics on those covered by defined benefit pension plans in general. This report presents its findings in terms of additional compensation (in a defined contribution plan, whether provided by the employer and/or the worker) needed to cover the accruals lost to a pension freeze.

Why are Healthy Employers Freezing Their Pensions? Boston College Center for Retirement Research, March 2006. 
This is an analysis of several case studies of 17 healthy companies that recently announced they were freezing their defined contribution pension plans.

An Analysis of Frozen Defined Benefit Plans, Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation, December 2005.
This study provides an analysis of 2003 data.

Recent Funding and Sponsorship Trends Among the FORTUNE 1000,Watson Wyatt, June 2005.


Analysis of Defined Benefit Plans

Future Retirement Income Security Needs Defined Benefit Pensions by Theresa Ghilarducci, University of Notre Dame and Center for American Progress, May 2006. This study analyzes the importance of defined benefit plans and provides evidence that the defined benefit plan is an important benefit for companies to provide to employees.

A Balanced Look at the Case for Defined Benefit Pensions, Watson Wyatt, November 2005.

Private Pensions: Information on Cash Balance Pension Plans, Government Accountability Office, October 2005.
This study provides an analysis of the effects of converting from a traditional pension plan to a cash balance plan.


Analysis of defined contribution plans

 401(k) Plans are Still Coming Up Short by Alicia H. Munnell and Annika Sundén, Boston College Center for Retirement Research, March 2006.
This study analyzes the role 401(k) plans play in the provision of retirement income.

Retirement Plan Participation and Contributions: Trends from 1998 to 2003, Congressional Research Service, October 2005.


Comparisons of Defined Benefit and Defined Contribution Plans

Defined Benefit and Defined Contribution Plans: A History, Market Overview and Comparative Analysis by Stephen P. McCourt, International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans, February 2006.
This is a basic primer on the differences between defined benefit and defined contribution pension plans.

List of Advantages and Disadvantages for DB and DC Plans byGabriel, Roeder, Smith and Company, November 2003.
Lists the advantages and disadvantages of defined benefit and defined contribution plans.


General wealth and savings statistics

The Potential Effects of Retirement Security Project Proposals on Private and National Saving: Exploratory Calculations, Retirement Security Project, November 2006.
This paper estimates that making saving easier and increasing incentives to save for middle- and low -income households could increase net national saving by $75 billion a year.

Federal Reserve Statistical Release:  Flow of Funds Accounts of the United States -- Flows and Outstandings, Third Quarter 2005, Federal Reserve, March 2006.
This very long report includes statistics on how much money is kept in different types of retirement accounts in aggregate. 

Recent Changes in U.S. Family Finances: Evidence from the 2001 and 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances, Federal Reserve, February 2006. 
See page A16 for information on retirement accounts (does not include defined benefit pension plans).

Retirement Plan Participation and Retirees' Perception of their Standard of Living by Craig Copeland, Employee Benefit Research Institute, January 2006.
This Issue Brief focuses on a critical factor in retirement security: the presence of income or assets from an employment-based retirement plan.

Topics in Aging: Income and Poverty Among Older Americans in 2004, Congressional Research Service, November 2005.

Employment-Based Retirement Plan Participation: Geographic Differences and Trends by Craig Copeland, Employee Benefit Research Institute, October 2005.
This Issue Brief examines the level of participation by workers in public- and private-sector employment-based pension and retirement plans, based on the U.S. Census Bureau's March 2005 Current Population Survey, the most recent data currently available.

Retirement Plan Participation: Survey of Income and Program Participation Data by Craig Copeland, Employee Benefit Research Institute, September 2005.
This study analyzes data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation Survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of the Census relating to the availability and use of a workplace retirement plan.

Retirement Savings and Household Wealth: A Summary of Recent Data by Patrick J. Purcell, Congressional Research Service, June 2004.
This study includes data from the 1998 Survey of Income and Program Participation collected by the Bureau of the Census.

Can America Afford Tomorrow's Retirees: Results from the EBRI-ERF Retirement Security Projection Model by Jack VanDerHei and Craig Copeland, Employee Benefit Research Institute, November 2003.
This study analyzes data compiled from a study conducted to determine if Americans are saving sufficient amounts for post-retirement expenses.

Pension Sponsorship and Participation: Summary of Recent Trends by Patrick J. Purcell, Congressional Research Service, October 2001.
This study includes data from the March 2000 Current Population Survey collected by the Bureau of the Census and the 1996 and 1997 Employee Benefits Survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Employee Preferences as a Factor in Pension Participation by Minority Workers by Yung-Ping Chen, Gerontology Institute, University of Massachusetts-Boston, Revised February 22, 2001.
This study includes data from 1988 and 1993 Current Population Surveys (CPS) conducted by the Bureau of the Census. Report submitted to the to the Pension and Welfare Benefits Administration, U.S. Department of Labor.

Pathways to Pension Coverage: Lessons from Other Countries by Martin Rein, MIT and John Turner, AARP, May 2001

 

 

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